Adia Pena: Declaration 2022

historyextra.com 2022

Introduction

One event throughout history that many people have heard of is the French Revolution. This event started in May 5, 1789 and then officially ended November 9, 1799. Whether it was through classes, movies, or brief discussions with peers in regards to what happen during that era everyone can agree upon how big of an impact the revolution made in French history. Many reasons why it became well known was because this was an impactful period where the people of France finally initiated this movement and those results lead them to “succeeded in obtaining great power for the lower class, creating a constitution, limiting the power of the monarchy, giving the Third Estate great control over the populace of France and gaining rights and power for the lower class of France” (“The Success of The French Revolution.”). There were people who were part of this revolution who became well known in French history. Some of these people were known for the purpose of being supporters, some were against the revolution, and even some as well were traitors during this period. One influential figure from that time was a man named Maximilien Robespierre. Though his view points were “to make France a republic of virtue with equality and liberty for all men” (Eagan 11) this was only in the beginning. Later on Robespierre’s other views of how France should be ruled lead to his downfall. It in addition to this it caused him to be “represented [as] all that was evil in the Revolution”, though for some people he was “the savior and protector of democracy and the rights of man” (Eagan 11).

Early Times of Maximilien Robespierre

c. 1790 (anonymous), Musée Carnavalet

Robespierre was born on “May 6, 1758, in Arras, the small capital of the province of Artois” (Jordan 24) in northern France. His father, Maximilien Barthélémy de Robespierre, was a lawyer and his mother, Jacqueline Marguerite Carrault, was known only know by her parents’ famous brewer since she passed away later in his life. His father ended up leaving him and Maximilien with “his brother and sisters, was raised by his maternal grandparents” (“Maximilien Robespierre.”). This was a tough start into Robespierre childhood but he still stayed focused for his future despite his early tragedies. Robespierre was bright in his education at a young age. One aspect that proves his brilliance is when he was 17 years old “he was chosen from the 500 pupils of his school to deliver a speech to the newly crowned King of France Louis the XVI” (“Maximillien Robespierre Biography.”). With such achievement to his first education he decides to attend a university in order to study law. He went to the college of the “Oratorians at Arras, and in 1769 he was awarded a scholarship to the famous college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris, where he distinguished himself in philosophy and law” (“Maximilien Robespierre.”). After graduating and passing the bar exam in 1781 he made a “private practice [that] provided him with a comfortable income” (“Maximilien Robespierre.”). Within the practice he had a “reputation as a forceful and enlightened lawyer, a people’s lawyer, even a poor man’s lawyer” (Jordan 44). In other viewpoints people thought his action in law were “too radical, took only cases of poor clients, and had offended the courts” (Jordan 28). Not letting any negative opinions or views from other people get in his way Robespierre still represented for giving equal justice for the lower class citizens in the French judicial system. This event “alarmed the privileged classes by his protests in his “Mémoire pour le Sieur Dupond” (‘Report for Lord Dupond’) against royal absolutism and arbitrary justice” (“Maximilien Robespierre.”).

Political Impacts of  Robespierre

comicvine.gamespot.com 2022

To become a lawyer, own your own law firm, and be well known for advocating to the community that was never acknowledge was a huge stepping stone. But more was to come for Robespierre in the political realm. Robespierre was “a member of the Third Estate at Artois” (Eagan 32) and there he was able to find “appeals to the welfare of the country [to] assure them of the popular support no matter how thin their political programs may be” (Eagan 32).Most methods he would do would be relating to patriotism, since he believe that “was the key to all problems confronting the state” (Eagan 36).He would do speeches talking in regards to these issues which not only gave him the role at the estate but the National assembly as well. While there he “sp[oked] more than 500 times during the life of the National Assembly” (“Maximilien Robespierre.”) to advocate how France should be run. Not only did he join the assembly, but also a group called the Jacobins which was the most famous political group of the French Revolution. He even earned a title “ ‘the Incorruptible’ because of his honesty and firm sense of right and wrong” (“Robespierre, Maximilien de.”). With wanting to “govern in accordance with the general will of the people” (Eagan 42) he put that into action by writing the wants “on paper in a constitution” (Eagan 42). He also wanted to help create the declaration of rights so that “these rights before the eyes of the people [would not be tampered with] so that they would never be oppresses by tyrants” (Eagan 42). These kinds of ethics and morals shows values of great leadership in a society that sought after this to rules most regions throughout history.

It’s Revolution Time

Lamartine in front of the Town Hall of Paris rejects the red flag on 25 February 1848 by Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux

Throughout the time of the revolution, Robespierre was known for the speeches he did to large audiences. He assisted the revolution by fighting “almost exclusively with his words” (Jordan 64). Through his speeches he influenced  “ ‘[t]he love of justice, of humanity, of liberty’ ’’that the French never received from the monarchy (Jordan 64) and “his work as an organizer of the Jacobin party” (Eagan 52) lead the group to be successful in the revolution. With Robespierre leadership the Jacobin party attacked “their enemies not as mere opponents but as criminals seeking dominant power at home or spies paid by hostile foreign powers” (Eagan 52). When they caught the enemies the “Committee arrested alleged opponents of the revolution, who were then tried by revolutionary courts” (McKelvie). Those enemies were “members of the aristocracy, priests, members of the middle class and anyone accused of counterrevolutionary activity” (McKelvie). They all had to be in trial since “the Law of Suspects [was created] in order to identify and punish any alleged enemies of the revolution” (McKelvie). In the end they were all found guilty and executed which accumulated “records of those sentenced to death numbers 16,594, but 18,000 to 23,000 more may have been killed without trial or may have died while imprisoned” (McKelvie). With all that Robespierre was doing in France while being part of the Nation assembly and the Jacobin party he got a “place on the Committee of Public Safety” (“Maximilien Robespierre.”). This committee primarily ruled France after the, King Louis XIV, was guillotined and was “unofficially controlled by Robespierre” (“Maximillien Robespierre Biography.”). The peoples’ perspective was more acknowledge for the Revolution due to Robespierre’s control. He had equal viewpoints, always supported the lower class, and joined organizations that fought for their freedoms against the unfair monarchy. The French revolution had succeeded with gaining the power they never had before. However, eventually everything went wrong with the power he had with the influential committees he controlled and authority in France that Robespierre now had.

The Downfall of Robespierre

The arrest of Maximilien Robespierre, July 27, 1794.
Image:DeAgostini Picture Library/age fotostock

With his view and morals, it was hard to believe that what he was doing later on led to him being and having a title in ways along the lines of what a dictator did. But that was what exactly he was doing “[in] order to bring about a mass conscription, economic dictatorship, and total war” (“Maximilien Robespierre.”). With the position, organizations, and assembling the Reign of Terror he automatically became the “de facto dictator of the country” (“Maximillien Robespierre Biography.”). How he was doing this dictatorship was “established outside the regular government and then it gradually seized power” (Eagan 149). Now with all what he was doing with France did he want to become a dictator and rule France under this direction. When question about him ruling France this way “Robespierre denied any such ambition. He merely wished a highly centralized form of government in order to rid France of its enemies” (Eagan 149). But his way to govern the people led to him “los[ing] the support of the people, whose hardships continued despite the recent French victories” (“Maximilien Robespierre.”). What made the French citizens had enough is when he carried out executions without a fair trial. This made the French citizens “question his rule and the other members of the convention conspired [in secret] to overthrow him” (“Maximillien Robespierre Biography.”). The citizens went to a hotel he was residing in and “attacked the Hôtel de Ville and easily seized Robespierre and his followers” (“Maximilien Robespierre.”). This lead to his death of being “guillotined before a cheering mob on the Place de la Révolution” (“Maximilien Robespierre.”).

My Take On Maximilien

Power is something that can be good or bad. You can use power to support a cause or you can even use power to destroy a cause. In most cases it all depends on the situation and the person in particular that has power. In the event that I lived during the time during the French revolution and I can give power to whoever I want I would choose Robespierre to obtain it. The reason why is because he has showed and did actions relating to a good nation that he wanted France to be. He had views and “belief[s] in the virtues of a society of nations, each free and equal, all co-operating for the general good” (Eagan 51). But then later on I would regret giving my power since during that time France is not the nation that Robespierre was supposed to make. No matter which way you look at it a dictatorship is an oppress ruling. There have been a large percentage of countries and regions that give better opportunities and wealth under this authoritarian regime ruling. Though, is that all really worth it for the cost of only letting one person rule with power and the citizens that live and contribute to the nation not having a say to what goes on. No one was really truly free under the time Robespierre ruled. It was not a surprise “his death, his memory was relentlessly attacked, and a great many of his papers were destroyed. History portrayed him as either a bloodthirsty creature or a timid bourgeois” (“Maximilien Robespierre.”). This can go back to how some dictatorships would happen to stabilize a problem in their region. The dictator feels since they control and have the source of power what they do is ideal to run the region. However, in the end it does not help the citizens but instead give bad representation to whoever is ruling and making the decisions.

Conclusion and Final Remarks

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To sum up all that has been stated, throughout all of history we have seen destruction, beauty, interesting perspectives, and eye opening experiences that surprised people. The French revolution altogether gave us these categories. Maximilien Robespierre was not only there during the time of the revolution but help made it. All Robespierre wanted to do was have an “eternal future for revolutions and revolutionaries” (Jordan 3). This had to be cut short for Robespierre (pun not intended) since he was not doing this for the citizens of France towards the end of his life. I will never forget the oath he made the people of France in which he said “I swear to maintain with all my might the unity and indivisibility of the republic” (Jordan 72). He said this with meaning since he wanted to “recognize as my brother any just man, any true friend of humanity, whatever is color, his stature, and his land” (Jordan 72).  France now has that in the modern day society. Robespierre wish came true but he did not do it during his era. Who knows if Robespierre has regrets for what he did that made the French resent him to the end. Who knows if he still wanted France to be ruled the way he was doing. All that is known is that all he did and all that has happened in the French Revolution is in a huge part history that is not forgotten.

Work Cited

Eagan, James Michael. Maximilien Robespierre: Nationalist Dictator. Columbia University Press, 1938.

Jordan, David P. The Revolutionary Career of Maximilien Robespierre. University of Chicago Press, 1989.

“Maximilien Robespierre.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., https://www.britannica.com/biography/Maximilien-Robespierre.

“Maximillien Robespierre Biography.” YouTube, uploaded by CloudBiography, 14 June 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=OglrzNohp3Q.

McKelvie, C. (2021, October 20). What was the reign of terror? LiveScience. Retrieved April 24, 2022, from https://www.livescience.com/reign-of-terror.html

“Robespierre, Maximilien de.” UXL Encyclopedia of World Biography, edited by Laura B. Tyle, vol. 9, UXL, 2003, pp. 1599-1601. Gale In Context: Global Issues, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3437500666/GIC?u=miam11506&sid=bookmark-GIC&xid=9ce72b03. Accessed 22 Apr. 2022.

“The Success of The French Revolution.” ukessays.com. 11 2018. UKEssays. 04 2022 <https://www.ukessays.com/essays/history/the-success-of-the-french-revolution-history-essay.php?vref=1&gt;.

Adia Pena: Miami as Text 2022

Adia Pena Is a junior at Florida International University. She is under the honors college majoring in Political Science. When Adia gets free time, she likes to read, clean, and cook. She especially loves to cook and eat spicy food (can eat anything spicy also). Adia has a sweet personality and an open mind to new opportunities that are in front of her.

Deering as Text 2022

“A New Home,” by Adia Pena of Fiu Deering Estate

Whenever you think of a luxury real estate many factors come into mind. In most cases it could be a huge acre a land that has mansion that is five story in the middle. There could be a huge pool in a secluded area with lots of security. But in the 1920’s living the luxury lifestyle was a different way.

When I first step into the estate I was greeted by a large Boat basin and two beautiful homes next to each other. Before it was bought from the state all the area was owned by a man named Charles Deering. Before Deering purchase the property, it was a vernacular home called the Richmond cottage. When he bought it, he made and renovated the two buildings next to each other. The one he lived and his well know home was a stone house made of concrete. It also had design inspiration from foreign architecture. Inside was a huge secret wine cellar that hid alcohol that was illegal to obtain during that time period. Looking at this area is a sight to see but had a tragic history of how it was made.

Charles deering main home by Adia Pena

During the times Charles Deering wanted to make this home was during racial segregation. Black Workers, most from the Bahamas, would construct his house in harsh and unsafe conditions. It was so bad that an accident occur that killed four of the workers. Ambulance did not even save them since they believe their lives were not worth it to get them out of danger. Who knew such beauty from a home can have such tragedy to it.

Class in nature perserve by Monica Perez

Next to his home my class was able to hike through the huge Nature Preserve. This preserve was first own by the natives there called the Tequesta. The Tequesta land hold many valuable factors towards it. The land contains freshwater and saltwater. The fresh water was their main source for drinking and the saltwater gave them shell bits. These were important tools for them to do daily chores like descaling fish. Though the Tequesta are no longer physically here they did not leave their home. Some of the Tequesta were left in a burial mound. Under this huge oak tree contains the bodies of the natives. They are position in a circle underneath the dirt protected by the preserve so they may be in peace.

Who knew not too far from where I live in south Florida there is another piece history that is not to well known. To know that what happen in the estate was a mind-blowing experience wish that more of the locals here in Florida would be able to know about what happen in the estate to get to know happen before we all lived here in Florida.

Inside the Stone House by Adia Pena

Vizcaya as Text 2022

“Garden of history left behind” by Adia Pena of FIU Vizcaya Musuem and gardens

A huge estate known as the Visacya Museum and Gardens resides in Miami. Though it is now a historical traction use for weddings,celebrations,and get togethers it once belonged to a maned James Deering. With the incredible wealth that he had, he wanted a home like no other in Miami. It had to be decorated, design and sculpted to his taste.

He started by making his home huge by buying 100 acres of the land within 1000 feet in 1912. Now that he owned the property, he needed workers to build his dream. He got workers whose origins were Bahamian. These black workers were treated terribly based on the low pay they were getting for this hard labor and the horrible work conditions. Not only at their workplace, they were poorly treated, but in Miami, they were put into segregated areas. Many artists came to the home to make some touches to it. Some of these artists are unknown, and some were big named artists that have done multiple projects for Deering. One notable artist is a man named Paul Chalfin. In fact, he was in charge of the general design for inside and outside the home. Other people whose names they were able to find that helped build the home were Burrall Hoffman as the architect and Diego Suarez, who was in charge of the landscape.

First, entering the guest entrance of the museum is like walking on a red carpet. To go inside, you have to walk a certain distance to get in, but when you are walking, you are guided by a long waterfall from both sides that makes it feel it is taking you where you need to enter inside.

Guest Entrance of Vizcaya by Monica Perez

Once inside the building, I was amazed at how much detail was put into each room of this estate. Entering in the middle of the home, you feel, see, and are with the ocean. The house gives a feeling you are in Miami’s tropical Flora by the sunlight coming into the vast window up and the many plants decorated around.

the middle of Deering’s Estate by Monica Perez

After being in the middle of the home, the class explored the rest of the first floorof his home. Like any standard home, there is a kitchen, pantry, and Dinning room. Each design with statues and artistic details mainly from Europe. But Deering wanted more to be made for him that everything would be astonishing and towards his liking. To his request, more was put inside like no other home. A reception room was made inside with decor from France named Rococo style. That style contained heavy decoration of curves and designs like seashells. Then the most astonishing room inside was the living room. As the largest space in the home, there was a huge fireplace with stonework from Normandy. A huge painting and small sculptures had lions on it, showing the great beast. But the most significant and unique artistic piece was the carpet. Not like a rug carpet that gets stained all time; oh no, this huge Admiral carpet hangs on the side with Islamic designs. It has a script in Arabic that translates to say there is no god but Allah. Inside the design, there are coats of arms in which one has a has lion, two wolves, and the chivalric order of La.

Class astonished by one of the rooms while being lectured about if from Professor John Bailly by Monica Perez

After being inside this one of a kind of home, we went outside where new beauty was shown. A huge sculpture on the sea shows a huge mermaid that Deering wanted. But when it was first created, it was not to his liking. He complained about the breast size in which he got it made smaller despite having to give another large compensation. Then a large fountain was transported onto the garden that was originally in a town square. In it, there was a small maze, though not able to have a lost experience base of the bush being cut short, it was interesting to be in one.

The water Fountain in Visacaya by Adia Pena

Another new visit to add to my list here in south Florida. Through art, there is a story and meaning. While here, I was able to know the true meaning behind that phrase. Even though it seemed at first Deering Just wanted to spend his riches on this because he was able to, he wanted artwork that he could show that had meaning, purpose, and beauty to it.

Last look of the Garden By Adia Pena

Downtown Miami as Text 2022

“Deep in the Depth of Dowtown Miami” by Adia Pena Downtown Miami

Miami about anybody from Florida or outside has heard of this city. The reason is because of the reputation it brings. Its diversity, urban culture, and fast past city life. But to actually know if it does bring those options, you have to be in the heart of it, which is downtown Miami.

In the downtown of Miami, the first stop I went to was the Government center. This hits you with the city life base on how many people are hustling to go to their destinations. They either travel by car, Miami busses, or the Miami metro, which is right next to the government center.

The Government center’s intimidating building by Adia pena

Though fast past city life can be nonstop, one thing will stop to catch your eye. The amazing art that is display throughout the city.One artwork that stands out is by two artist named Claes Oldenburg and Coosje Van Bruggen. In front of the government, building is a sculpture that has huge pieces of Orange peels, Orange slices, and broken bowls displayed made of iron. This represents the Florida symbol, which is the orange, and the explosion that the city of Miami holds.

Miami artwork by Adia Pena

Another few blocks away is a home. Not like an apartment building or a luxury home. But an older home that holds history. The original homeowner was named William Wagner. What stood out with him and his house is who lived there. During his time, segregation took place. Not only were people of color limited on where they could go they were also limited on who they could love. This still did not stop Eveline Aimar, an immigrant from Haiti, and Wagner, a German Immigrant, from being together and having a child. They made their family there and friendly relationships with the Seminoles. This estate is known as one of the oldest Miami homes.

After being in that historical monument, the class went right into the middle of downtown Miami. Like most downtown cities, there was the courtroom of that district. What is unique about Miami’s courthouse is its architecture. It took a Neo-classical style to meet what was needed in Miami’s county for 50 years.

Miami Courthouse by Adia Pena

By the courthouse lays a disturbing history. One of them being a statue of Henry Flagler. Even though Flager helped make Miami, he also negatively impacted it. Some negative factors he did are creating a segregated city named color town, destroying a burial mound of the Tequesta, and throwing waste into the river. Many people have made petitions and gone to the government to get rid of his name being honored in the city by changing the street named after him.

A while later, we walk passed the residential areas of Miami. A vast river was by that used to have freshwater by the Everglades which got destroyed based on discharge by the Royal palm hotel. Then there was the Flager’s workers house that was used for construction works to live in when they first started building the Royal Palm Hotel. Before we started our journey, we went to the center of Miami. Not afraid of the crazy traffic or anybody stopping us, the class stepped in to take a group photo showing proof that we were officially in the middle of Miami.

Group selfie by Isa Brime

Our last historical stop was the Freedom Tower. This beautiful building help Cuban immigrants start their new life here in Miami. Cubans would stay here for refugee and made this establishment their symbol of liberty. Not only does it hold memories, but the building itself is amazing. Based on how it is 17 stories and has architecture inspiration from Spain.

The beauty of the tower by Adia Pena

Who knew going through a downtown city holds so much. Miami is more this just party life and luxury styles. It shows that a community from the past, present, and future can hold more opportunities. Not only do we have these opportunities nothing and nobody can stop us from keeping our creative spirit, growing minds, and rightful views.

Sobe as Text 2022

“Miami Beach Madness” by Adia Pena South Beach

I have been through places in Miami that I did not even know existed through this time. The next destination that I went to, South Beach, is a well-known huge tourist attraction. Many people come here for the summer, spring break, or visit to see what the hype is all about there. Little do tourists or people that live in that area know what made South Beach like no other city in South Florida.

There is no way while at South Beach that you do not stop by the sandy beaches and clear blue waters. Imagine sea salt, cool breeze, and a scenery that hits a person with astonishment. Now scratch that thought and think about mangroves with long roots all over. That is what south beach originally looked like until Carol Fisher came into the picture. With greed in his eyes, Fisher wanted to take this environment and make it into a holiday home for his own profit. While building this without a thought in mind, he took away what was already on the land. He took away the homes of the Africans, Seminoles, and native animals. The only thing he left was destruction to the environment.

South Beach view by Nathaly Lopez

Walking away from the beach, knowing what is behind all those buildings, you are hit with the Miami everyone knows. Streets filled with heavy traffic, people partying, and the Florida heat in your face. Now what surrounds you all over is the building that are there. These are not just regular buildings any architecture made; they each have their own style, all inspired by Art Deco.

Art Deco is not like any other building design or style. Art Deco came to be unique because of the fascination with technology. Some examples can be toasters, refrigerators, or even spaceships. To add on how this style is supposed to be, there are characteristics that make it stand out, like having pastel colors, curved edges, and porthole windows.

Art Deco inspired Building by Nathaly Lopez

Though most buildings take from Art Deco, they are each unique in their own way. One building that many tourists come to is the Versace Mansion. Gianni Versace fell in love with Miami and made a residents here. Within South Beach, he saw the fashion and beauty that Miami had, so he incorporated it into his fashion line. People loved what he did, but some people had another viewpoint about him. One person’s viewpoint led to Versace being shot and killed on the front steps of his home. Now his home holds a story that brings people all over to see his home while enjoying a bottle of wine that cost an arm and a leg and 72.00 prime rib dinner while inside.

If that is not in your price budget, going further down the streets, you can find reasonable price quick eats like coffee, BBQ, and even seafood. But one specialty that no one can beat is Pizza. But what makes a specific pizzeria well known is not what is inside but what is in-between. There is the Betsy Orb which is an egg shape sculpture that is in between an alleyway. This unique sculpture can be posted on social media and can land a person a free sweet treat with a pizza purchase. This quick bite is well deserved on an exploration of South Beach.

The Betsy Orb by Nathaly Lopez

I always have a feeling that certain tourist spots can be just scams. But while I was in South Beach, the beauty and history captivated me. So many people come here, whether for vacation or to have their own investment, know that South Beach is the spot. But, I know what made South Beach the spot that brought its attraction for what it is today.

Last photo in the South by Isa Brime
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